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Thursday, August 30, 2012

anatomy viva

                                Anatomy viva

1)    Describe the pericardium

Ans: It is a fibro – serous sac which enclose the heart and root of the great vessals except inferior vena cava

Layers :
1)      outer fibrous pericardium
2)      inner serous pericardium.

Function of pericardium –
1.      it covers the heart and maintain the position of heart .
2.      it protects heart from external injury.

2) Major opening of the diaphragm

         Ans: Aortic opening:-
a.       Vertebral label – at the label of the lower border of the 12th thoracic vertebra.
b.      stricture passing –
1.      Abdominal Aorta.
2.      Thoracic duct.
3.      Azygos and hemiagzygos vein.

2Esophageal opening-
a.       vertebral label- At the label of 10th thoracic vertebra.
b.       Strictures passing-
1.      esophagus. 
2.      Anterior and posterior vagal trunks.
3.      Oesophageal branches of left gastric artery.
               3.Vana cava opening –
                                                   a. vertebral lable – At the lable of the intervartebral disc ,                            
                                                                              T8 T9 thoracic vertebra
                                                   b.Stracture passing –
                                                                                 1. inferior vana cava.
                                                                                 2. some branches of right phrenic            

Name of the parts of stomach . & blood supply.
           Ans- There are two parts of stomach-
1.      cardiac parts.
2.      pyloric parts.

                    Cardiac parts-
a.       Fondues of the stomach
b.      Body of the stomach.

                    Pyloric parts-
a.       pyloric canal.
b.      Pyloric antrum.

      Blood supply of the stomach-
a.       short gastric artery.
b.      Right gastric – epiploic artery
c.       Left gastro – epiploic artery .
d.      Right gastric artery
e.       Left gastric artery.

3.Describe gall bladder

             The gall bladder is a pear shaped, bile reserver, it is situated in the right hypochondriac region and inner surface of the right lobe of the liver .

                  Parts of gall bladder-
A.    Fundus .
B.     Body &
C.     Nack.

Function of the gall bladder –
a.       it reserve bile.
b.      It secreted in bile.
c.       It absorbs water from bile.
d.      It absorbs in organic salt
e.       It secreted cholesterol and mucous.

4. What are the structures enter and emerge through the hilus of kidney ?
         Ans : Enter
a.       Renal artery
b.      Nerve plexus.
c.       Capsule
a.       Renal vein
b.      Pelvis of the urethra
c.       Lymph vessels.



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